Infoa luontaisesta mehiläishoidosta
Suomesta on vaikea löytää tietoa luonnollisesta mehiläisten hoidosta. Luomu ei ole luonnollista siten, kuin itse sanan ymmärrän. Luomun ero tavanomaiseen mehiläistenhoidon tekniikkaan on talvehtimislaatikko ja tarhapaikkojen etäisyys suuriin valtateihin. Luomussa ja tavanomaisessa hoitotavassa on käytössä samat torjuntaaineet, ja ohjeet niiden käytölle. Citytarhaajia lukuunottamatta suurin osa tavanomaisesta mehiläistenpidosta hoitaa mehiläisiään kaukana isoista teistä. Luomussa tarhaaja on pakotettu käyttämään vain luomu-sokeria talviruokintaan. Tätä ei saa Suomesta, vaan on rahdattava Etelä-Amerikasta. Tämän rahtiliikenteen johdosta mututuntumalta väitän, että luomun ympäristövaikutukset ovat selvästi negatiivisemmat kuin tavanomaisen mehiläishoidon. Tavanomaisessa mehiläishoidossa käytetään myös puulaatikoita, mahdollisesti käytössä olevien styrox-laatikoiden käyttöikä pitkä. Luomusokerin rahtauksesta tulevia päästöjä ei millään ole mahdollista saada samalla tasolle kuin tavanomaisen mehiläishoidon.
Kopion Michale Bush:n artikkelin luontaisemmasta tavasta hoitaa mehiläisiä. Siinä on laajemmin selitetty ja selkeästi jäsennetty olemassaolevia ongelmia, niiden syitä ja jo keksittyjä ratkaisuja. Käytössä olevat mehiläishoidon tekniikat hänen mukaansa ruokkivat ja ylläpitävät ongelmaa. Syy-seuraussuhteen johtopäätelmät eivät mielestäni kovastikaan onnu.
Alla oleva teksti on kopioitu osoitteesta:
Why this beekeeping web site?
I suppose you'd have to be living under a rock these days to have not heard that the honey bees and beekeepers are in trouble. The problems are complex, far reaching and mostly recent. They are certainly a threat to the survival of the beekeeping industry but, even more so, to the survival of many plants which we need or want for food and many other plants that are a necessary part of the environment.
"People who say it cannot be done should not interrupt those who are doing it." - George Bernard Shaw
It seems like there is some controversy over whether it is even possible to keep bees without treatments. But there are many of us who are doing this and succeeding.
While most of us beekeepers spend a lot of effort fighting with the Varroa mites, I'm happy to say my biggest problems in beekeeping now are things like trying to get nucs through the winter here in Southeastern Nebraska and coming up with hives that won't hurt my back from lifting or better ways to feed the bees.
So my purpose is first of all to talk about how to deal with the current problems of beekeeping, and second of allhow to work less and accomplish more at beekeeping.
Let's do a short overview of the problems in beekeeping and the solutions. The details are in the articles in the menu on the left.
Unsustainable beekeeping system
"Beekeeping now has the dubious honor of becoming the first part of our system of industrial agriculture to actually fall apart. Let’s stop pretending that something else is going on. We no longer have enough bees to pollinate our crops. Each time the bees go through a downturn, we respond by making things more stressful for them, rather than less--we move them around more often, expose them to still more toxic substances, or fill the equipment up again with more untested and poorly adapted stock. We blame the weather, the mites, the markets, new diseases, consumers, the Chinese, the Germans, the (fill in your favorite scapegoat), other beekeepers, the packers, the scientific community, the price of gas, global warming - anything rather than face up to what’s really happening. We are losing the ability to take care of living things." - Kirk Webster
So why are we having problems? We have a lot of recent pests and diseases that have made it to North America (and most other places in the world) in the last 30 years or so. As someone once said, "You can't keep bees like grandpa did cause grandpa's bees are dead." Most of us beekeepers have lost all of our bees one time or another in the last few decades and this seems to be getting worse. So part of the problem for beekeepers is the pests, but there are other issues.
Shallow Gene Pool
We have a narrow gene pool to start with here and between pesticides, pests, and overzealous programs to control Africanized Honey Bees, many of the pockets of feral bees have been depleted leaving only the queens that people buy. When you consider that there are only a handful of queen breeders providing 99% of the queens, that's a pretty small gene pool. This deficiency used to be made up by feral bees and people rearing their own queens. But the recent trend is to encourage everyone to not rear their own queens and only buy them. Especially in AHB (Africanized Honey Bee) areas.
The other side of the pest issue is that the standard answer offered by the experts has been to use pesticides in the hives by beekeepers to kill the mites and other pests. But these build up in the wax and cause sterile drones which in turn causes failing queens. One estimate I heard from one of the experts on the subject put the average supersedure rate at three times a year. That means the queens are failing and being replaced three times a year. This is stunning to me since most of my queens are three years old.
Wrong Gene Pool
The other side of helping bees with treatments of pesticides and antibiotics is that you keep propagating the bees that can't survive. This is the opposite of what we need. We beekeepers need to be propagating the ones that cansurvive. Also we keep propagating the pests that are strong enough to survive our treatments. So we keep breeding wimpy bees and super pests. Also for years we have bred bees to not rear drones, be larger, and use less propolis. Some of these make them reproductively challenged (less drones and larger bees hence larger slower drones) and some make them less able to handle viruses (less propolis).
Upset ecology of the bee colony
A bee colony is a whole system in itself of beneficial and benign fungi, bacteria, yeasts, mites, insects and other flora and fauna that depend on the bees for their lively hood. All of the pest controls tend to kill the mites and insects. All of the antibiotics used by beekeepers tend to kill either the bacteria (Terramycin, Tylosin, essential oils, organic acids and thymol do this) or the fungi and yeasts (Fumidil, essential oils, organic acids and thymol do this). The whole balance of this precarious system has been upset by all the treatments in the hive. And recently beekeepers switched to a new antibiotic, Tylosin, which the beneficial bacteria has not had a chance to build up resistance to and they have switched to formic acid as a treatment which shifts the pH radically to the acidic and kills many of the microorganisms of the hive.
Beekeeping House of Cards
So beekeepers, with the advice and assistance of the USDA and the universities, have built this precarious system of beekeeping that relies on chemicals, antibiotics and pesticides to keep it going. And beekeepers keep breeding the resistant pests that can survive the treatments, contaminating the entire wax supply with poisons (and we make our foundation out of that contaminated wax so it is a closed system) and breeding queens that can't survive without all of this treatment.
What can we do to have a sustainable beekeeping system?
The only way to have a sustainable system of beekeeping is to stop treating. Treating is a death spiral that is now collapsing. To leverage this, though you really need to raise your own queens from local surviving bees. Only then can you get bees who genetically can survive and parasites that are in tune with their host. As long as we treat we get weaker bees who can only survive if we treat, and stronger parasites who can only survive if they breed fast enough to keep up with our treatments. No stable relationship can develop until we stop treating.
The other problem, of course, is that if we just stop now with the system of beekeeping we have, the genetically and environmentally weakened bees will usually die. Even if they are genetically capable of surviving in a clean (uncontaminated) environment, we have to get to an environment they can survive in or they will still die. So what is that environment?
We need clean wax. Using foundation made from recycled, contaminated wax will not get that for us. The entire world wax supply is now contaminated with acaracides. Natural comb will provide clean wax.
Natural Cell Size
Next we beekeepers need to control the pests in a natural way. We will elaborate more on this as we go, but Dee and Ed Lusby arrived at the conclusion that the solution to this was to get back to natural cell size. Foundation (the source of contamination in the hive from pesticide buildup in the world beeswax supply) is designed to guide the bees to build the size cells we want. Since workers are from one size and drones from another and since beekeepers for more than a century have viewed drones as the enemy of production, beekeepers use foundation to control the size cells the bees make. At first this was based on natural sizes of cells. Early foundation ran from about 4.4mm to 5.05mm. But then someone (Francis Huber was one of the first to write about it) observed that bees build a variety of cell sizes and that large bees emerged from large cells and small bees emerged from small cells. So Baudoux decided that if you enlarged the cells more you could get larger bees. The assumption was that larger bees could haul more nectar and therefore would be more productive. So now, today, we have a standard cell size of foundation that is 5.4mm. When you consider that at 4.9mm the comb is about 20mm thick and at 5.4mm the comb is 23mm thick this makes a difference in the volume. According to Baudoux the volume of a 5.555mm cell is 301cubic mm. The volume of a 4.7mm cell is 192mm. Natural cell size runs from about 4.4mm to 5.1mm with 4.9mm or smaller being the common size in the core of the brood nest.
So what we have is unnaturally large cells making unnaturally large bees. We will elaborate more on why and how on the page "Natural Cell Size". The short version is that with natural cell size we get control of the Varroa population and can finally keep our bees alive without all the treatments.
Honey and real pollen are the proper food of bees. Sugar syrup has a much higher pH (6.0) than Honey (3.2 to 4.5) (Sugar is more alkali). Stating the same thing conversely, honey has a much lower pH than sugar syrup (Honey is more acidic). This affects the reproductive capability of virtually every brood disease in bees plus Nosema. The brood diseases all reproduce more at the pH of sugar (6.0) than at the pH of honey (~4.5). And this is not to mention that honey and real pollen are more nutritious than pollen substitute and sugar syrup. Artificial pollen substitute makes for short lived, unhealthy bees.
Hope you enjoy,